#DAWN, Founded by the #Quaid, Announces the Birth of #Pakistan. The only #EnglishDaily published by #Muslims during the Pakistan Movement in 1942, Dawn was founded by Quaid-e-Azam in Dehli, #British #India. After the resignation of its first editor Potan Joseph who negated the movement, journalist Altaf Hussain was chosen as the editor in 1945. The circulation flourished internationally under his editorship, and in 1947 the senior Dawn staff led by Altaf Husain set off for Karachi to launch a local edition starting 15 August 1947. Under the instruction of the Quaid, it became the official organ of Pakistan Muslim League in Delhi and the sole voice of the Muslims League in the #English language.
Urdu, the official language of Pakistan, is also the official language of 6 states in India. Urdu replaced Persian in 1837 across the Sub-continent and achieved the status of official language alongside Hindi in 1900. In 1948, the Government of the Dominion of Pakistan ordained Urdu as the sole national language. In 1962, after series of protests in East Pakistan, the Constitution of 1962 declared Urdu and Bengali were as the official languages. Urdu has been the official language of Pakistan since the separation of Bangladesh. Renowned Urdu writers and poets like Sir Allama Iqbal, Faiz Ahmed Faiz and Ahmed Faraz are among those in history whose writings have impacted readers across the world.
Pakistan’s Constituent Assembly First Convenes on the Eve of Independence and the End of British Rule. During the inauguration of Pakistan Constituent Assembly, Quaid-e-Azam in reply to Lord Mountbatten’s address said, “I wish to emphasize that we appreciate the spirit in which those in the Government at present and in the Armed Forces and others have so willingly and ungrudgingly volunteered themselves provisionally to serve Pakistan. As servants of Pakistan we shall make them happy and they will be treated equally with our nationals.”
The Quaid’s Vision for Pakistan is a Peaceful Pakistan for All. 69 years ago on this day, the founding father of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam gave to non-Muslims a vision and hope by assuring them of equality and religious freedom. The Quaid, further in his speech added, “We have many non-Muslims –Hindus, Christians, and Parsis –but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan.”
The British Government Publishes ‘The Radcliffe Line’ on August 17, 1947 to Demarcate the Official Border. Called ‘The Radcliffe Line’ after its chairman Cyril Radcliffe, the borderline demarcated between Pakistan and India was supposed to equally divide 4, 50,000 km sq of territory with a population of 88 million people. A crude border had already been drawn up by Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, prior to his replacement as Viceroy in February 1947 by Lord Louis Mountbatten.
The Partition of Pakistan and India is Known as the Largest Mass Migration in Human History. UNHCR estimates that at least 4 million people, including Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs, were displaced during the partition terming it as the largest mass migration in human history. It is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide between the religions.
Designed by an active freedom fighter of the Pakistan Movement, Amiruddin Kidwani, the flag is based on All-India Muslim flag. He had carefully studied the flag of the Muslim party before designing one for the newly independent nation. The flag symbolizes Pakistan’s commitment to Islam and the rights of religious minorities with the crescent and the star presenting progress and light.
The National Anthem, also called ‘Pak Ser Zameen,’ was written in Persian. The three stanza lyrics does not have any repetition of verses.
The anthem, composed by Ahmad G Chagla in 1949, was performed for the first time by Pakistan Navy band during the state visit of the Shah of Iran to Pakistan in Karachi on 1 March 1950.
The National Anthem was officially recorded with the chorus comprising of 11 famous Pakistani singers. The chorus included Ahmad Rushdi, Shamim Bano, Kokab Jehan, Rasheeda Begum, Najam Ara, Naseema Shaheen, Zwar Hussain, Akhtar Abbas, Ghulam Dastgir, Anwar Zaheer and Akhtar Wassi.
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali proposed the name ‘Pakistan’ in his famous 1933 ‘Pakistan Declaration’
The pamphlet, originally titled “Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever,” started with a famous statement, “At this solemn hour in the history of India, when British and Indian statesmen are laying the foundations of a Federal Constitution for that land, we address this appeal to you, in the name of our common heritage, on behalf of our thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN – by which we mean the five Northern units of India, Viz: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan Province), Kashmir, Sindh and Baluchistan.” The letter ‘I’ was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name.